Sunday, October 5, 2014

Scientists Discover that Atheists Might Not Exist

In one of his blogs CalvinDude wrote:

Scientists discover that atheists might not exist, and that’s not a joke.
[ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ link to article   ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑]

The article tries to claim that there are evolutionary survivability advantages to believing in God despite Him supposedly not existing. But frankly the article posits nothing of value on that discussion. Better arguments have been put forth elsewhere.

Of course, all such arguments fall prey to one important fact. If evolution selects for us to believe in some form of deity when objectively there is no God at all, then evolution is selecting for us to believe a lie; and since on the theory that God isn’t real then all our knowledge comes from similar evolutionary pressures, then ultimately we must acknowledge that evolution cannot select for truth at all. This means we can’t exactly trust anything that is based on evolutionary pressures.
But I’m sure atheists will get right on patching up that flaw. Any time now. Any time.

The link CalvinDude provides is to an article that argues that the scientific evidence strongly supports the idea that humans are neurologically hard-wired to believe in metaphysically supernatural personal entities (like God, gods, ghosts, spirits etc.). Atheists often appeal to evolutionary reliabilism to overcome the theistic challenge of EAAN (i.e. the Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism). However, if humans really are hard-wired to believe in supernatural entities and can't completely escape or overcome that bias, then that undermines the appeal to evolutionary reliabilism.

With the assumption that atheism is true, the fact that "most" people ("all" according to the article above?) are believers in the supernatural goes to show that evolution has done a terrible job of designing our sensory organs and mental faculties to be able to arrive at truth. This supports Plantinga's EAAN (Evolutionary Argument Against Naturalism) which argues that it's rationally incoherent to be a evolutionary atheist because unguided evolution makes it unlikely that any of our thoughts and conclusions are trustworthy or true. Including the conclusion of atheism.

On the one hand many atheists claim that our cognitive faculties are reliable enough to enable us to conclude that God doesn't exist (or probably so). Yet, the empirical evidence from experiments is that humans are naturally and incurably wedded to the belief in supernatural entities like God. On the other hand, many atheists claim that our cognitive faculties are very deceptive and that accounts for why the majority of humans believe in supernatural entities and only a few can overcome that natural programming so as to come to the more sensible conclusion that there probably isn't a God. Yet, if taken to its logical conclusion, that gives atheists reason to doubt their conclusions, including the conclusion that there is no God or is likely no God. Why assume they can overcome such evolutionary programming if evolution did such a bad job at forming our cognitive faculties? Thus making positive strong atheism epistemologically difficult (if not impossible) to assert.

The following are three links to an article about the scientific experiment that showed that atheists sweat when they dare God to do harm:

Belief in God is part of human nature - Oxford study

Related links:

Are humans innately inclined to find theism intuitive?

I’m an atheist. So why can’t I shake God?

10 facts about atheists

Why God Won't Go Away: Brain Science & the Biology of Belief

Do children believe because they're told to by adults? The evidence suggests otherwise

Is Atheism a Delusion?

Is Atheism a Delusion? (Follow up)
Can Atheists Trust Their Own Minds?
by William Lane Craig

The Circularity of Evolutionary Reliabilism

Two Senses of ‘Reliability’ in Evolutionary Epistemology

The Case Against Reality by Greg Welty

Evolution May Obscure Reality, Says a Cognitive Scientist and Evolutionist by Sarah Chaffee

 Born Believers: The Science of Children's Religious Belief by Justin L. Barrett [ link]

The Hard Problem of Consciousness

Problems of Consciousness

Eliminative Materialism

Is Consciousness an Illusion? by Thomas Nagel

Greg Bahnsen's doctoral dissertation is available for download. The title is, A Conditional Resolution of the Apparent Paradox of Self-Deception

It was presented to the faculty of the University of Southern California

Here's the link:

Greg Bahnsen was a Calvinist philosopher and apologist who argued for the standard Calvinistic position that all men know God but suppress that knowledge in their unrighteousness. I'm no longer dogmatic that [setting aside the mentally handicapped and infants] all men do know God. Maybe we all do. But at the very least, I'm convinced that all people *OUGHT* to know God exists and that those who don't (if they really exist) are culpably ignorant.

See Also My Blogs:

Evidence and Arguments Against Materialism and Naturalism

The Psychology of Atheism

Monday, September 29, 2014

The Life of the Messiah (21 audio lectures) by Arnold Fruchtenbaum

This blogpost links to Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum's 21 part audio lecture series "The Life of the Messiah" (alternatively titled "The Jewish Life of Christ").

Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lecture 7
Lecture 8 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lecture 13 Lecture 14
Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lecture 21

Answering Your Toughest Questions with Dr. Michael Brown YouTube Episodes:
 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25,26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32,

Each episode is about 30 minutes long. That means this series of lectures is about 16 hours long. It deals with the toughest questions regarding the Messiahship of Jesus/Yeshua.

Countering the Counter-Missionaries
(Over 24 hours of teaching by Michael L. Brown)

Day 1 part 1 & 2
Day 1 part 3 & 4

Day 2 part 1 & 2
Day 2 part 3 & 4

Day 3 part 1 & 2
Day 3 part 3 & 4

Day 4 part 1 & 2
Day 4 part 3 & 4

Day 5 part 1 & 2
Day 5 part 3 & 4

It's common for non-Messianic Jews to argue that no respected and learned rabbis ever accepted Jesus' Messiahship. However that's false. As the following two articles proves.

Rabbis Who Thought For Themselves Part ONE
Rabbis Who Thought For Themselves Part TWO

The above articles don't even mention learned Jews who weren't rabbis but who nevertheless were believers in Jesus/Yeshua. For example, Charles Lee Feinberg who was on his way to becoming a rabbi when he became convinced that Jesus was the Messiah. He went on to become a biblical scholar and professor of Semitics and Old Testament. He was an authority on the Jewish history, languages and customs of the Old Testament and biblical prophecies. His two sons John and Paul also became Christian scholars. Another example would be Alfred Edersheim who wrote classic books including The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. David H. Stern (writer of the Jewish New Testament Commentary). Another example would be Louis Goldberg, Th.D. - faculty; author and former professor of Theology and Jewish Studies; former president of the Evangelical Theological Society, in 1983; former Scholar-in-Residence for Jews for Jesus.

More could be cited, but I'll leave it at that.

See also my related blog:

What Do You Think About The Messiah?

Sunday, September 14, 2014

Problems with the Multiverse

I myself am open to the reality of a multiverse. I don't believe its existence threatens the existence of God. I agree with Robin Collins views as he's explained it in the 2nd video HERE.

As Robin Collins points out th multiverse would be consistent with the infinite creativity of God (or Divine principle of plenitude). Nevertheless, the idea that a multiverse exists apart from a designer does seem unlikely and ad hoc to me. It goes against the principle of parsimony or Occam's Razor which argues that all things being equal, the simpler explanation or hypothesis is to be preferred over more complex ones.  As Richard Swinburne wrote:

"…it is the height of irrationality to postulate an infinite number of universes never causally connected with each other,  merely to avoid the hypothesis of theism. Given that simplicity makes for prior probability, and a theory is simpler the  fewer entities it postulates, it is far simpler to postulate one God than an infinite number of universes, each differing  from each other in accord with a regular formula, uncaused by anything else."
- Richard Swinburne on the multiverse  theory in his book The Existence of God

"Some have said that the laws of nature are simply accidental results of the way the universe cooled after the big bang. But, as Rees has pointed out, even such accidents can be regarded as secondary manifestations of deeper laws governing the ensemble of universes. Again, even the evolution of the laws of nature and changes to the constants follow certain laws. 'We’re still left with the question of how these "deeper" laws originated. No matter how far you push back the properties of the universe as somehow "emergent," their very emergence has to follow certain prior laws.'1 So multiverse or not, we still have to come to terms with the origin of the laws of nature. And the only viable explanation here is the divine Mind.” —Antony Flew (There is a God, pp. 121-122.)
1. Martin Rees, “Exploring Our Universe and Others,” in The Frontiers of Space (New York: Scientific American, 2000), 87.

“[The multiverse theory] can explain anything . . . If a theory allows anything to be possible, it explains nothing; a theory of anything is not the same as a theory of everything.”- John Polkinghorne (is an Anglican priest and philosopher, a theist. He was also at one time a theoretical particle physicist at Cambridge.)
Polkinghorne's statement renders the multiverse theory trivial—or at least the infinite universes version of the theory.

Victor Stenger, a retired physics prof from the University of Hawaii, has given us two books that explain both atheism and "multiverses", and behold, they are one. Few other proponents of multiverses are quite as forthcoming with their logic, but clearly something besides data must motivate the science of multiverses, because by definition multiverses are not observable. Stenger makes the connection explicit, whereas Hawking or Susskind is a little more coy with their metaphysics. Multiverse-theory is designed for one purpose, and one purpose only, and that is to defend atheism. It makes no predictions, it gives no insight, it provides no control, it produces no technology, it advances no mathematics, it is a science in name only, because it is really metaphysics.- physicist Rob Sheldon

William Lane Craig has made an interesting point when comparing the competing hypotheses of cosmic design and a multiverse. There's independent evidence for the existence of God, but there is no independent evidence for the multiverse/world ensemble. Much less that it's also infinitely numbered and randomly ordered.
John Lennox rightly noted that though atheists may present the options of either God OR the multiverse, that's a false dilemma since God could have created the multiverse. Don Page is a Canadian Christian who is a colleague of Stephen Hawking and he believes in the multiverse. Craig has pointed out that theism is the best hope for the existence of the multiverse because an omnipotent God can create as many worlds as He wants.

Physicist Paul Davies’ killer argument against the multiverse

Stephen C. Meyer giving his reasons for why cosmic intelligent design is more plausible even if a multiverse theory is true. He speaks on the topic for about 10 minutes. I've already qued the video at 70 minutes. View video by Clicking HERE

Here's another critique of the Multiverse theory.

The Teleological Argument (What it really says)
(video link)

The Big Bang, Multiverses, and the Anthropic Principle Discussed by William Lane Craig 

"If, for some unforeseen reason, the landscape turns out to be inconsistent – maybe for mathematical reasons, or because it disagrees with observation – I am pretty sure that physicists will go on searching for natural explanations of the world. But I have to say that if that happens, as things stand now we will be in a very awkward position. Without any explanation of nature’s fine-tunings we will be hard pressed to answer the ID critics. One might argue that the hope that a mathematically unique solution will emerge is as faith-based as ID." - From the New Scientist interview of Leonard Susskind
To the hard-line physicist, the multiverse may not be entirely respectable, but it is at least preferable to invoking a Creator. Indeed, anthropically inclined physicists like Susskind and Weinberg are attracted to the multiverse precisely because it seems to dispense with God as the explanation of cosmic design.- Bernard Carr

William Lane Craig's Debate with Sean Carroll

This link includes 1. Craig's pre-debate assessment, 2. the debate, 3. Craig's after debate reflections

As I understand it, the Multiverse theory is a cosmological postulate distinct (and different from) from the Many Worlds interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.

Here's a critique of the many worlds interpretation

A Critique of the Many Worlds Interpretation
(video link)

Why Obey God? [rough draft]

I'm currently working on this blog. Comments and Objections welcome. Sometimes objections are the best way to help refine one's arguments.
See also my blog: God in Relation to Law: Ex Lex, Sub Lego or Sibi Ipsi Lex

In this blog I'll try to map out the reasons for obeying God. It'll be in the form of a dialogue. I'll be giving answers, objections and commentary as I play both Christian theist and atheist.

A = Christian Answer
O = Atheist Objection
C = My Commentary

Why should one obey God?

A. Because God is the ultimate authority and commands you to.

O. But that begs the question, since we're asking why  one should obey God. Saying one should obey God because God is the ultimate authority doesn't actually answer the question. It merely bypasses or dismisses or ignores the question. Why should one accept God's claimed authority in the first place? What reasons can you give me to believe that God does have such an authority and is deserving my obedience?

A. But to ask why one should obey God is itself to beg the question as to whether God actually does possess ultimate authority such that you must obey God.

C. I agree and disagree with both responses. I do believe that to question God's authority is to beg the question as to whether God does have such an authority. As a Christian I do believe God has that kind of authority and is deserving such implicit obedience. However, questioning God's authority is not the same thing as asking for reasons why one ought to obey God. There's nothing inherently wrong in asking for such reasons.

A. You ought to obey God because God is the source of our being and well being. By believing in God you avoid hell and will potentially enter heaven. God is omnipotent and can enforce His punishment on the disobedient and distribute His blessings on the obedient. God is not only our Creator, but also our Sustainer. By God's providence He conserves and preserves our continued existence. We are alive because God continues to uphold our being and existence along with providing whatever good things we do happen to enjoy in this world.

O. But those are prudential reasons, not rational reasons. With that approach one is merely obeying God for mercenary reasons. In essence, you're telling us to become cosmic sycophants, brown nosers and ass kissers. Also, your reference to God being powerful enough to enforce his punishment on the disobedient borders on, or commits the argumentum ad baculum fallacy. You and God are threatening me with the consequence of eternal punishment if I don't accept God's (claimed) authority.

C. Biblically, prudential reasons (like those mentioned above) are good and permissible reasons to obey God, but they are NOT the only reasons or even the BEST reasons. Also, I'm not so sure I'm committing the ad baculum fallacy. I might be, but not all ad baculum arguments are fallacious (see Here).

What is really being asked is what are the rational reasons one should obey God.

A. A rational reason to obey God is because He is your Creator. Your ontological Father, so to speak. In the same way you ought to implicitly obey your parents who gave you being, so you ought to obey God your Heavenly Father and Creator. You owe Him your being. Also, as your Creator, His commands to you and your duties to Him are adapted to your nature. So, they aren't arbitrary. As one person put it, "God doesn’t arbitrarily decree social ethics irrespective of the nature of social creatures. He has endowed us with a certain nature. The code of conduct is adapted to the way in which he designed us."

O. But earthly parents or creators don't have intrinsic authority. Just because someone is your parent or your creator doesn't entail you must obey them implicitly. A parent has no right to command you to to do evil. They have no right to murder you, or command you to commit murder. Consider this thought experiment. If Dr. Frankenstein or Satan created you, are you obligated to do their bidding merely because they command or wish it? Obviously not. Also, humans eventually become as knowledgeable as their parents (if not surpass them in knowledge). Good parents don't expect you to obey them implicitly all your life. If they did their job of parenting right, they expect you to reach a stage of development that you objectively consider their statements and advice and make rational decisions. You expect us to eternally be dependent on God's wisdom. To virtually remain children all our lives.

A. But God is all wise, all good, all powerful etc. That is to say, we should obey God because God is the kind of being God is. God is the maximally great being who is the summum bonum (highest Good), the ens perfectissimum (i.e. the most perfect being). Yes, humans do eventually equal their parents in intelligence when they grow up, but that's not true with God. The difference between finite human intelligence and divine infinite intelligence is a chasm that can never be gulfed. In fact, the more a human develops intellectually, the more he ought to realize how wide that gap is. God can see deeper, wider and more long term than you can. God sees the end from the beginning and the parts in relation to the whole (and vice versa). This is illustrated by a purported conversation Dr. Timothy Keller had with his son. The conversation went something like this:

Now I had a ten year old, my middle son, who was a very hard person...I would say to him, "Obey me! I'm your father. I told you to do this, just do it because I told you." And he would always say, "Dad, I would be happy to obey you if you could just make it reasonable...Tell me why this is helpful..." I would say, "If you only obey me when I explain it to you then you are not obeying me, you are just agreeing with me. I want you to obey me because I'm forty-five and you are ten. I know a little bit more about life than you do and I don't want to have to explain it to you because I couldn't get it into your ten year-old brain"
If this is true of human parents, how much more of the infinitely knowledgeable God? Also, if one developed properly in terms of rationality and morality, one should come to see how reasonable it is to obey God. Also, it's not as if God hasn't given us rational reasons for obeying Him in the Bible. He has along with other types of reasons. See John Piper's book Christian Hedonism and C.S. Lewis' sermon The Weight of Glory.

O. Okay, let's go through some of those attributes individually. You focused on God's knowledge. What does possessing all knowledge have anything to do with my obeying God? Just because God has a lot of facts and data doesn't make him worthy of obedience. There are a lot of knowledgeable people in the world who are evil. Think of people who commit IT computer crimes.

A. It's not just that God possesses all knowledge (omniscience), God also possesses all wisdom (omnisapience). God's knowledge is not limited to His 1. free knowledge (i.e. of the world as it is or will be), nor to His. 2. natural/necessary knowledge of all necessary truths and all possible contingent worlds. God's knowledge includes His informed wisdom. Wisdom can be defined as knowing the best ends, and knowing the best means to arrive at those ends. And so, God knows which instructions to give you by which you can know the best way to navigate your way in the world when it comes to temporal things (earthly) and spiritual things (heavenly).  As people jokingly say, "BIBLE" stands for "Basic Instructions Before Leaving Earth."

O. That might be true about God being able to help us in life, but don't you see that that appeal again boils down to prudential reasons? In essence, you're telling me to obey God because God's "wisdom" (we might as well add "power") can lead to my greatest benefit if not also in this world, then at the very least in the afterlife (i.e. ultimately, finally and lastingly).

A. But God is also all good. The source of all goodness. The standard, exemplar and paragon of goodness.

O. To say that God is the source of all goodness is not the same thing as saying God is good or even that God is the standard of Goodness.

First, to answer by saying God is the source of all goodness would seem, once again, to reduce to an appeal to prudential reasons. In other words, obey God and you'll receive good things since He's the source and "fount of every blessing" [as the hymn and Bible teaches (James 1:17; Ps. 36:9)].

Second, to say that God is all good, implies that there is some standard of goodness which God himself obeys. That would mean that there are absolutes outside of God. Something which you as a Christian theist deny.  But if true, then I don't need God in order to be moral. Which means, I don't need to obey God. God would be on the same plane with me morally. He would have to obey the laws of morality and goodness in the same way I do. Just as I'm not required to blindly obey or follow a human being, so I'm not required to blindly obey God.

Third, your only consistent option is the last statement you made where you claimed God is the standard of Goodness. But what are you really saying when you say that? It seems you're not really saying anything. It's a tautology. It's circular because all you're really saying is "God's nature is that which is God's nature" or " God is being God-like." 

A. Regarding the charge of a tautology, that objection is like asking the question, "What's north of the north pole?" Or, "Why is a bachelor and unmarried man?" The north pole is north by definition, just like bachelors are unmarried men by definition. The reason why we have a moral sense in the first place is because God implanted it within us by making us in His moral and rational image. To question God being the standard of goodness is to assume morality and goodness exist outside of God. It is to beg the question about the source of goodness and morality. Unless and until a better explanation is offered for the source of morality and goodness one cannot even begin to judge, evaluate or object to God's being the standard and source of goodness and morality. No one, including God, is asking you to obey Him blindly. Only trustingly based on your innate knowledge of God that is itself based on the sensus divinitatis/deitatis, His general revelation and (if you're fortunate enough to be exposed to it) His special revelation.

C. I would refer people to my blog that deals with these questions a bit more thoroughly here:

God in Relation to Law: Ex Lex, Sub Lego or Sibi Ipsi Lex  
A. I'll admit one thing. You got me into implying that any individual attribute of God separated from all the others can be used to argue for why one should obey Him. His attributes can be distinguished, but they shouldn't be separated. It's each of His attributes individually AND collectively that provides the rational (not to mention pragmatic, prudential etc.) reasons for obeying God. Beyond answering the question, "Why (rationally) should I obey God?," the related and more pointed question is, "How can God obligate us?"

You're asking for a RATIONAL answer, right? Well, One of many answers is because God is Himself the source of Rationality. God isn't merely the greatest participant of rationality among lesser participants. God is Ultimate Perfect Rationality. Along with being the source of being, blessing/benefits, love, and personality. God is the solution to the Greek philosophers' search for the transcendentals (e.g. the good, the true, and the beautiful etc.). All of God's perfections and excellencies individually and put together constitute the reason and reasons (rational, practical, pragmatic, prudential, existential) for obeying, loving, trusting and (to sum it all up) worshipping God. It is because God is the all glorious Supreme Being who is worthy of worship that we ought to worship Him. God possesses all perfections infinitely, without limitation and to their highest degree. "Infinity" here of course refers not to quantity, but quality. As William Lane Craig wrote:

But when theologians speak of the infinity of God, they are not using the word in a mathematical sense to refer to an aggregate of an infinite number of elements. God's infinity is, as it were, qualitative, not quantitative. It means that God is metaphysically necessary, morally perfect, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal, and so on.
Really "infinity" is just a sort of umbrella term used to cover all of God's superlative attributes.
You can't be rational without being dependent on God who is the source and paragon of rationality and morality. It's precisely because you are made in God's rational and moral image that you ought (rationally and morally) to obey God. To disobey God is the pinnacle of irrationality and immorality. You want to be logical, but God is the source of logic itself. As the Bible says, "In the beginning was the Word ["logos" in Greek], and the Word was with God, and the Word was God" (John 1:1). Logic is part of God's nature, and when you attempt to be logical you're tacitly admitting your dependence upon Him for your being AND rationality. So, it's eminently reasonable and rational to obey God.To do anything else is irrational.

O. Okay, let's say for the meantime I grant you that those are rational reasons for obeying God. But there's another level to this question. What rational reasons do I have to believe God possesses such attributes? For example, how can I believe that God is good and wise when I see so much evil in the world and seemingly bad design in the world? Bad design exemplified precisely because of the evil in the world. A world in which evil exists seems to be poorly designed. Poor design is a manifestation of folly rather than wisdom. What about God's apparent absence and indifference?

A. Now you're delving into the philosophical and theological issue of the problem of evil (PoE). We can eventually discuss that new objection, but that's a different topic. Before we move into that topic, let's probe deeper in our current discussion. We can also eventually discuss whether God actually is good (or not) and whether God is the standard of goodness. But hypothetically speaking, are you willing to admit that if God were the maximally great being (per the definition of God in the ontological argument) as well as the very standard of goodness itself (i.e. Himself), that it would be rational to obey such a Being?

One has to eventually ask, "How can ultimate goodness by impersonal?" How can goodness and morality be grounded in a materialistic worldview? Even given Atheistic Moral Platonism which posits immaterial forms or ideas, these ideas aren't personal. Positing Platonic forms may give one models for ideal behavior, but since they aren't personal they cannot truly obligate. There are real moral obligations and only persons can obligate us. If one agrees there are universal obligations, then one ought also to agree that we are obligated by a universal person, namely God. Causally effete abstract entities cannot obligate persons. Craig even questions whether atheistic moral Platonism is rationally coherent.

If God were really morally perfect and the very source of morality, then it naturally follows that to disobey God is, by definition, immoral. God, being the kind of Being God is, ought to be obeyed. That's an eminently rational reason to obey God. 

This is worthy of repetition. It is rational and reasonable to obey God because God is the very source of rationality. God is ABSOLUTE RATIONALITY in PERSON (and eternally so). God's Absolute Personality and Absolute Rationality are what makes God GOD. That is, what qualifies God to be God who is worthy to be worshipped, believed, loved, trusted and obeyed. It's no accident that Jesus Christ is described in the Bible as the "Word" or "logos" in Greek. "Logos" in Greek means "reason" (and all that that entails). Logos is also the etymological source of the English word logic. God's absolute personality is also why God must be multi-personal (as Christians believe God is as a Trinity). Trinitarianism solves the problem of the one and the many. BOTH unity and diversity are ultimate. Ultimate in the Triune God. To obey God is to follow the dictates of perfect Reason (Himself/Themselves). So, if you want to be rational, logical, and reasonable, then be like God by following His dictates.

What reason do I have to believe that even if God were absolutely rational that his dictates are moral? Even among human beings having superior intelligence and reasoning capacity doesn't guarantee moral behavior.

That's because human beings are finite in personality, knowledge, and rationality. At a minimum, morality and moral behavior among finite creatures like humans requires personal agency, knowledge, rationality and a standard of value. With God you have absolute personality, absolute knowledge (omniscience), absolute wisdom (omnisapience), absolute rationality, and an absolute value. Each infinite person of the Trinity esteeming Himself and the other two infinite persons of the Trinity as having infinite value. God is the "gold standard" (if you will, and in a manner of speaking) by which humans, made in God's image, can value other human beings as they too are minted with God's stamp of value. This is the meaning of Christ's request for a denarius and his statement, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (cf. Mark 12:13-17//Matt. 22:15-22). Meaning, just as the denarius has the image of Caesar on it and it belongs to Caesar, so also in a higher sense humans have God's image inscribed on them, and we are to worship God in whom all the glories and values of man are only a reflection of God's own perfect and infinite glory and value. Thus, to obey God is to be as close to being like the Supreme Being as our finite nature allows.

"You shall be holy, for I am holy." - 1 Peter 1:16 ESV
"You therefore must be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect"- Matt. 5:48

"Be ye holy; for I am holy."- 1 Peter 1:16 KJV
"Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect."- Matt. 5:48

Here's another analogy that uses gold. If humans were analogous to paper currency (e.g. $100 dollar bills), then God is the gold that backs up the value of the paper money. Without the gold, the money is worthless. It's because God has eternally valued Himself that humans made in His image (and who reflect His value) have value and worth in themselves. Christianity can ground human dignity and worth and so can make sense of moral obligations between human beings. As I argued elsewhere, values flow from God's nature, while our moral duties as God's creatures flow from God's will as expressed in commands (i.e. Divine Command Essentialism).

Is Atheistic Moral Platonism More Plausible Than Theism?
(video link)

Ultimately, we obey God because obeying God is one of the aspects of worship. And we worship God because, to quote William Lane Craig....

"You believe in  [and worship] God because God, as the supreme Good, is the appropriate object of adoration and love. He is Goodness itself, to be desired for its own sake. And so the fulfillment of human existence is to be found in relation to God. It's because of who God is and his moral worth that he is worthy of worship. It has nothing to do with avoiding Hell, or promoting your own well-being." [source]

Finally, while prudential reasons are not the best motivations or the ultimate reasons why we ought to obey and worship God, prudential reasons are nevertheless legitimate penultimate or antepenultimate reasons.

Here are some links to prudential reasons for obeying God.

 In my blog on Sermons and Books on Heaven I have three resources that provide really good prudential reasons for obeying God.

The Weight of Glory by C.S. Lewis

Heaven by Edward D. Griffin

 Pascal's Wager [collection of articles from Christians, atheists and non-Christians in general]

I also recommend a blog of mine dealing with God's relation to law and morality. It deals with the question, "Where is goodness located?"

Here are links to William Lane Craig videos on The Problem of Evil

 Why Doesn't God Reveal the Reasons For Permitting Evil and Suffering?
(video link)

"The Problem of Evil and Suffering"
(video link)

Here are links to three of my blogs that have some relevance to the topic of this blog.

God in Relation to Law: Ex Lex, Sub Lego or Sibi Ipsi Lex

"Unveiling" The Hiddenness of God

Detecting and Finding God 

Answering Moral Objections to the Bible

Book Reviews of Recent Atheist Authors by Christian Apologists 

Resources for Dealing with Alleged Bible Contradictions, Discrepancies and Errors

Dealing with Christian Doubts

Christian Apologetics: Who Needs It? by William Lane Craig 

short url:

Scientific Evidence Against Materialism

My knowledge of science is very limited, but according to many who do understand modern science, there is scientific evidence that seriously calls into question or even refutes materialism. I don't vouch for the complete accuracy of the scientific statements made in these videos. But I do assume their general accuracy regarding the data (even if not always stated as precisely as they could be).

The following videos document some of these evidences. By the way, I don't necessarily agree with all of the conclusions these videos make. Whether they are the scientific conclusions or (and especially) the theological conclusions. For example, some of the Christian authors assume the truth of divine idealism and Christian panentheism. Though, I am open to divine idealism and a Christian version of panentheism, I don't currently subscribe to them. At the very least these videos are thought provoking and seriously call into question materialism/naturalism.

 The Incompatibility of Physicalism with Physics: A Conversation with Dr. Bruce Gordon

In this video Bruce Gordon argues for the incompatibility of physicalism with modern physics and in the end favors some sort of Quantum Idealism. During the Questions & Answers portion of the webinar (at 1:31:11) a question I submitted earlier was answered and Dr. Gordon ends up mentioning popularizer Johanan Raatz and says he has both agreements and disgreements with Raatz. He even mentions InspiringPhilosophy's Youtube channel's videos on the topic as well. I've linked to some of both InspiringPhilosophy's and Raatz's videos below.

[Why] Quantum Physics Debunks Materialism

Quantum Physics Debunks Materialism
(Open in another browser tab by clicking HERE)

Digital Physics Argument for God's Existence

Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser Experiment Explained

The Death of Materialism

A Critique of the Many Worlds Interpretation

The Measurement Problem

The Introspective Argument
(video link)

Christianity and Panentheism

The Case for the Soul (Neuroscience)
(video link)

The Case for the Soul: Refuting Physicalist Objections
(video link)

The above videos are from the Christian YouTube channel InspiringPhilosophy. Another Christian channel advocating a Christian version of Quantum Idealism is Johanan Raatz's channel HERE.

Raatz's channel as a lot of videos on the topic. Here's a link to Raatz interviewing J.P. Moreland on the topic:

Here's an example of Raatz's videos on Quantum Idealism

Digital Physics Meets Idealism: The Mental Universe

A Dualist Equivalent to Physics-Based Idealist Apologetics by Johanan Raatz

The above videos are Christian. The following videos below are NON-Christian.

The Simulation Hypothesis

[[update: If I'm not mistaken, Johanan Raatz recently said that the above video "The Simulation Hypothesis" was created by a friend of his (at his request or suggestion). So, it might be created by Christians without directly pointing to Christianity as the ultimate explanation.]]

For another NON-Christian video explaining some of the recent discoveries in science that undermine materialism, see the first 3 1/2 videos in the following link. I say the first 3 1/2 videos because after that it gets into Non-Christian occultic religious views. Even the first 3 1/2 videos have statements and conclusions that don't necessarily follow, even assuming the science is generally accurate.

↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑  ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑  ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
This is the link to the non-Christian religious videos I mentioned above

God Is Real…Why modern physics has discredited atheism.
[I can't tell whether the above link is Christian or not.]

See Also My Blog:

Problems with the Multiverse


Evidence and Arguments Against Materialism and Naturalism

Saturday, August 30, 2014

The Impassibility of God

The following are some interesting links that directly or indirectly deal with the doctrine of God's Impassibility. I have a few things to point out and say before I post the links.

 In one of his blogposts Steve Hays points out two different ways in which the doctrine of Impassibility is often defined. I recommend reading his blog on the topic. Here's an excerpt:

1. Classic theism teaches that God is impassible — not subject to suffering, pain, or the ebb and flow of involuntary passions. 

Incapable of suffering or of experiencing pain 

Incapable of feeling 

Compare that to a more academic definition of the term:

2. Nothing created can cause God to change or be modified in any way…Many classical theists make this point by insisting that God is impassible. In this context "Impassible"…means "not able to be causally modified by an external agent"…God cannot be altered by anything a creature does. B. Davies, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (Oxford, 3rd ed, 2004), 5.
In the comments box I wrote:

I personally don't think that an affirmation of #2 entails an affirmation of #1.

It seems to me that an author of a book can be emotionally moved by the contemplation of the details of the drama within his book even though he himself choose to write it the way it is written. Analogously, maybe God can be emotionally effected by human tragedies which He Himself has ordained will come to pass. Especially if God's choosing the second order goods He purposes and plans might logically constrain Him to permit things that of themselves (per se) He disapproves of. For example, God ordains every sin we ever commit, yet we're called to not grieve or vex the Holy Spirit (Eph. 4:30; Isa. 63:10). Maybe not all the Scriptural data that speaks of God experiencing emotion is anthropopathic.

However, our experience of emotion is often tied to temporal consciousness, and therefore "emotion" (as we experience it) may not apply to God if He's timelessly eternal. But there might be something analogous to our experience of emotion that God experiences. Maybe more intensely than we do. At least that's what some Calvinists seem to believe (e.g. John Piper).
Then I quoted John Piper on God's Happiness which has implications for theodicy.

John Piper wrote:

It is not surprising, then, that Jonathan Edwards struggled earnestly and deeply with the problem that stands before us now. How can we affirm the happiness of God on the basis of His sovereignty when much of what God permits in the world is contrary to His own commands in Scripture? How can we say God is happy when there is so much sin and misery in the world?
Edwards did not claim to exhaust the mystery here. But he does help us find a possible  way of avoiding outright contradiction while being faithful to the Scriptures. To put it in my own words, he said that the infinite complexity of the divine mind is such that God  has the capacity to look at the world through two lenses. He can look through a narrow lens or through a wideangle lens.
When God looks at a painful or wicked event through His narrow lens, He sees the tragedy of the sin for what it is in itself, and He is angered and grieved: “I have no pleasure in the death of anyone, declares the Lord GOD” (Ezekiel 18:32).

But when God looks at a painful or wicked event through His wide-angle lens, He sees the tragedy of the sin in relation to everything leading up to it and everything flowing out from it. He sees it in relation to all the connections and effects that form a pattern, or mosaic, stretching into eternity. This mosaic in all its parts—good and evil—brings Him delight.5
- Desiring God: Meditations of a Christian Hedonist page 39

John Piper also wrote:

God's Happiness Is A Great Part Of His Glory

In 1 Timothy 1:11 Paul focuses on the gospel as "the glory of the blessed God." The word translated "blessed" in this phrase (makarivou) is the same one used in the beatitudes of Jesus in Matthew 5:3-11. "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth." And so on. The word means "happy" or "fortunate." Paul himself uses it in other places to refer to the happiness of the person whose sins are forgiven (Rom. 4:7) or the person whose conscience is clear (Rom. 14:22). It is astonishing that only here and in 1 Timothy 6:15 in the entire Old Testament and New Testament does the word refer to God. Paul has clearly done something unusual, calling God makarios, happy.

We may learn from the phrase "the glory of the happy God" that a great part of God's glory is his happiness. It was inconceivable to the apostle Paul that God could be denied infinite joy and still be all-glorious. To be infinitely glorious was to be infinitely happy. He used the phrase, "the glory of the happy God," because it is a glorious thing for God to be as happy as he is. God's glory consists much in the fact that he is happy beyond all our imagination.
- God is the Gospel page 100
God's impassibility, however one understands it should be seen in light of God's glory, sovereignty and wisdom.

Here are the external links:

More Steve Hays blogs

P.S. The doctrine of God's Impassibility has once again come under scrutiny in Reformed Baptist circles. See for example this link HERE.

The Monergism website's list of articles on the doctrine of Impassibility:

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

353 Prophecies Fulfilled in Jesus Christ

source of this information:

353 Prophecies Fulfilled in Jesus Christ

"Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me" (Psalm 40:7).
"The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy" (Revelation 19:10).
"...all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me" (Jesus Christ, Luke 24:44).
"To Him give all the prophets witness" (Acts 10:43).



1. Gen. 3:15 Seed of a woman (virgin birth) Galatians 4:4-5, Matthew 1:18
2. Gen. 3:15 He will bruise Satan's head Hebrews 2:14, 1John 3:8
3. Gen. 3:15 Christ's heel would be bruised with nails on the cross Matthew 27:35, Luke 24:39-40
4. Gen. 5:24 The bodily ascension to heaven illustrated Mark 16:19
5. Gen. 9:26, 27 The God of Shem will be the Son of Shem Luke 3:36
6. Gen. 12:3 Seed of Abraham will bless all nations Galatians 3:8, Acts 3:25, 26
7. Gen. 12:7 The Promise made to Abraham's Seed Galatians 3:16
8. Gen. 14:18 A priest after the order of Melchizedek Hebrews 6:20
9. Gen. 14:18 King of Peace and Righteousness Hebrews 7:2
10. Gen. 14:18 The Last Supper foreshadowed Matthew 26:26-29
11. Gen. 17:19 Seed of Isaac (Gen. 21:12) Romans 9:7
12. Gen. 22:8 The Lamb of God promised John 1:29
13. Gen. 22:18 As Isaac's seed, will bless all nations Galatians 3:16
14. Gen. 26:2-5 The Seed of Isaac promised as the Redeemer Hebrews 11:18
15. Gen. 28:12 The Bridge to heaven John 1:51
16. Gen. 28:14 The Seed of Jacob Luke 3:34
17. Gen. 49:10 The time of His coming Luke 2:1-7; Galatians 4:4
18. Gen. 49:10 The Seed of Judah Luke 3:33
19. Gen. 49:10 Called Shiloh or One Sent John 17:3
20. Gen. 49:10 Messiah to come before Judah lost identity John 11:47-52
21. Gen. 49:10 Unto Him shall the obedience of the people be John 10:16
22. Ex. 3:13-15 The Great "I AM" John 4:26, 8:58
23. Ex. 12:5 A Lamb without blemish Hebrews 9:14; 1Peter 1:19
24. Ex. 12:13 The blood of the Lamb saves from wrath Romans 5:8
25. Ex. 12:21-27 Christ is our Passover 1Corinthians 5:7
26. Ex. 12:46 Not a bone of the Lamb to be broken John 19:31-36
27. Ex. 15:2 His exaltation predicted as Yeshua Acts 7:55, 56
28. Ex. 15:11 His Character-Holiness Luke 1:35; Acts 4:27
29. Ex. 17:6 The Spiritual Rock of Israel 1Corinthians 10:4
30. Ex. 33:19 His Character-Merciful Luke 1:72
31. Lev. 1:2-9 His sacrifice a sweet smelling savor unto God Ephesians 5:2
32. Lev. 14:11 The leper cleansed-Sign to priesthood Luke 5:12-14; Acts 6:7
33. Lev. 16:15-17 Prefigures Christ's once-for-all death Hebrews 9:7-14
34. Lev. 16:27 Suffering outside the Camp Matthew 27:33; Heb. 13:11, 12
35. Lev. 17:11 The Blood-the life of the flesh Matthew 26:28; Mark 10:45
36. Lev. 17:11 It is the blood that makes atonement Rom. 3:23-24; 1John 1:7
37. Lev. 23:36-37 The Drink-offering: "If any man thirst" John 7:37
38. Num. 9:12 Not a bone of Him broken John 19:31-36
39. Num. 21:9 The serpent on a pole-Christ lifted up John 3:14-18, 12:32
40. Num. 24:17 Time: "I shall see him, but not now." John 1:14; Galatians 4:4
41. Deut. 18:15 "This is of a truth that prophet." John 6:14
42. Deut. 18:15-16 "Had ye believed Moses, ye would believe me." John 5:45-47
43. Deut. 18:18 Sent by the Father to speak His word John 8:28, 29
44. Deut. 18:19 Whoever will not hear must bear his sin Acts 3:22-23
45. Deut. 21:23 Cursed is he that hangs on a tree Galatians 3:10-13
46. Joshua 5:14-15 The Captain of our salvation Hebrews 2:10
47. Ruth 4:4-10 Christ, our kinsman, has redeemed us Ephesians 1:3-7
48. 1 Sam. 2:35 A Faithful Priest Heb. 2:17, 3:1-3, 6, 7:24-25
49. 1 Sam. 2:10 Shall be an anointed King to the Lord Mt. 28:18, John 12:15
50. 2 Sam. 7:12 David's Seed Matthew 1:1
51. 2 Sam. 7:13 His Kingdom is everlasting 2Peter 1:11
52. 2 Sam. 7:14a The Son of God Luke 1:32, Romans 1:3-4
53. 2 Sam. 7:16 David's house established forever Luke 3:31; Rev. 22:16
54. 2 Ki. 2:11 The bodily ascension to heaven illustrated Luke 24:51
55. 1 Chr. 17:11 David's Seed Matthew 1:1, 9:27
56. 1 Chr. 17:12-13 To reign on David's throne forever Luke 1:32, 33
57. 1 Chr. 17:13 "I will be His Father, Son." Hebrews 1:5
58. Job 9:32-33 Mediator between man and God 1 Timothy 2:5
59. Job 19:23-27 The Resurrection predicted John 5:24-29
60. Psa. 2:1-3 The enmity of kings foreordained Acts 4:25-28
61. Psa. 2:2 To own the title, Anointed (Christ) John 1:41, Acts 2:36
62. Psa. 2:6 His Character-Holiness John 8:46; Revelation 3:7
63. Psa. 2:6 To own the title King Matthew 2:2
64. Psa. 2:7 Declared the Beloved Son Matthew 3:17, Romans 1:4
65. Psa. 2:7, 8 The Crucifixion and Resurrection intimated Acts 13:29-33
66. Psa. 2:8, 9 Rule the nations with a rod of iron Rev. 2:27, 12:5, 19:15
67. Psa. 2:12 Life comes through faith in Him John 20:31
68. Psa. 8:2 The mouths of babes perfect His praise Matthew 21:16
69. Psa. 8:5, 6 His humiliation and exaltation Hebrews 2:5-9
70. Psa. 9:7-10 Judge the world in righteousness Acts 17:31
71. Psa. 16:10 Was not to see corruption Acts 2:31, 13:35
72. Psa. 16:9-11 Was to arise from the dead John 20:9
73. Psa. 17:15 The resurrection predicted Luke 24:6
74. Psa. 18:2-3 The horn of salvation Luke 1:69-71
75. Psa. 22:1 Forsaken because of sins of others 2 Corinthians 5:21
76. Psa. 22:1 "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" Matthew 27:46
77. Psa. 22:2 Darkness upon Calvary for three hours Matthew 27:45
78. Psa. 22:7 They shoot out the lip and shake the head Matthew 27:39-44
79. Psa. 22:8 "He trusted in God, let Him deliver Him" Matthew 27:43
80. Psa. 22:9-10 Born the Saviour Luke 2:7
81. Psa. 22:12-13 They seek His death John 19:6
82. Psa. 22:14 His blood poured out when they pierced His side John 19:34
83. Psa. 22:14, 15 Suffered agony on Calvary Mark 15:34-37
84. Psa. 22:15 He thirsted John 19:28
85. Psa. 22:16 They pierced His hands and His feet John 19:34, 37; 20:27
86. Psa. 22:17, 18 Stripped Him before the stares of men Luke 23:34, 35
87. Psa. 22:18 They parted His garments John 19:23, 24
88. Psa. 22:20, 21 He committed Himself to God Luke 23:46
89. Psa. 22:20, 21 Satanic power bruising the Redeemer's heel Hebrews 2:14
90. Psa. 22:22 His Resurrection declared John 20:17
91. Psa. 22:27-28 He shall be the governor of the nations Colossians 1:16
92. Psa. 22:31 "It is finished" John 19:30, Heb. 10:10, 12, 14, 18
93. Psa. 23:1 "I am the Good Shepherd" John 10:11, 1Peter 2:25
94. Psa. 24:3 His exaltation predicted Acts 1:11; Philippians 2:9
95. Psa. 30:3 His resurrection predicted Acts 2:32
96. Psa. 31:5 "Into thy hands I commit my spirit" Luke 23:46
97. Psa. 31:11 His acquaintances fled from Him Mark 14:50
98. Psa. 31:13 They took counsel to put Him to death Mt. 27:1, John 11:53
99. Psa. 31:14, 15 "He trusted in God, let Him deliver him" Matthew 27:43
100. Psa. 34:20 Not a bone of Him broken John 19:31-36
101. Psa. 35:11 False witnesses rose up against Him Matthew 26:59
102. Psa. 35:19 He was hated without a cause John 15:25
103. Psa. 38:11 His friends stood afar off Luke 23:49
104. Psa. 38:12 Enemies try to entangle Him by craft Mark 14:1, Mt. 22:15
105. Psa. 38:12-13 Silent before His accusers Matthew 27:12-14
106. Psa. 38:20 He went about doing good Acts 10:38
107. Psa. 40:2-5 The joy of His resurrection predicted John 20:20
108. Psa. 40:6-8 His delight-the will of the Father John 4:34, Heb. 10:5-10
109. Psa. 40:9 He was to preach the Righteousness in Israel Matthew 4:17
110. Psa. 40:14 Confronted by adversaries in the Garden John 18:4-6
111. Psa. 41:9 Betrayed by a familiar friend John 13:18
112. Psa. 45:2 Words of Grace come from His lips John 1:17, Luke 4:22
113. Psa. 45:6 To own the title, God or Elohim Hebrews 1:8
114. Psa. 45:7 A special anointing by the Holy Spirit Mt. 3:16; Heb. 1:9
115. Psa. 45:7, 8 Called the Christ (Messiah or Anointed) Luke 2:11
116. Psa. 45:17 His name remembered forever Ephesians 1:20-21, Heb. 1:8
117. Psa. 55:12-14 Betrayed by a friend, not an enemy John 13:18
118. Psa. 55:15 Unrepentant death of the Betrayer Matthew 27:3-5; Acts 1:16-19
119. Psa. 68:18 To give gifts to men Ephesians 4:7-16
120. Psa. 68:18 Ascended into Heaven Luke 24:51
121. Psa. 69:4 Hated without a cause John 15:25
122. Psa. 69:8 A stranger to own brethren John 1:11, 7:5
123. Psa. 69:9 Zealous for the Lord's House John 2:17
124. Psa. 69:14-20 Messiah's anguish of soul before crucifixion Matthew 26:36-45
125. Psa. 69:20 "My soul is exceeding sorrowful." Matthew 26:38
126. Psa. 69:21 Given vinegar in thirst Matthew 27:34
127. Psa. 69:26 The Saviour given and smitten by God John 17:4; 18:11
128. Psa. 72:10, 11 Great persons were to visit Him Matthew 2:1-11
129. Psa. 72:16 The corn of wheat to fall into the Ground John 12:24-25
130. Psa. 72:17 Belief on His name will produce offspring John 1:12, 13
131. Psa. 72:17 All nations shall be blessed by Him Galatians 3:8
132. Psa. 72:17 All nations shall call Him blessed John 12:13, Rev. 5:8-12
133. Psa. 78:1-2 He would teach in parables Matthew 13:34-35
134. Psa. 78:2b To speak the Wisdom of God with authority Matthew 7:29
135. Psa. 80:17 The Man of God's right hand Mark 14:61-62
136. Psa. 88 The Suffering and Reproach of Calvary Matthew 27:26-50
137. Psa. 88:8 They stood afar off and watched Luke 23:49
138. Psa. 89:27 Firstborn Colossians 1:15, 18
139. Psa. 89:27 Emmanuel to be higher than earthly kings Luke 1:32, 33
140. Psa. 89:35-37 David's Seed, throne, kingdom endure forever Luke 1:32, 33
141. Psa. 89:36-37 His character-Faithfulness Revelation 1:5, 19:11
142. Psa. 90:2 He is from everlasting (Micah 5:2) John 1:1
143. Psa. 91:11, 12 Identified as Messianic; used to tempt Christ Luke 4:10, 11
144. Psa. 97:9 His exaltation predicted Acts 1:11; Ephesians 1:20
145. Psa. 100:5 His character-Goodness Matthew 19:16, 17
146. Psa. 102:1-11 The Suffering and Reproach of Calvary John 19:16-30
147. Psa. 102:25-27 Messiah is the Preexistent Son Hebrews 1:10-12
148. Psa. 109:25 Ridiculed Matthew 27:39
149. Psa. 110:1 Son of David Matthew 22:42-43
150. Psa. 110:1 To ascend to the right-hand of the Father Mark 16:19
151. Psa. 110:1 David's son called Lord Matthew 22:44, 45
152. Psa. 110:4 A priest after Melchizedek's order Hebrews 6:20
153. Psa. 112:4 His character-Compassionate, Gracious, et al Matthew 9:36
154. Psa. 118:17, 18 Messiah's Resurrection assured Luke 24:5-7; 1Cor. 15:20
155. Psa. 118:22, 23 The rejected stone is Head of the corner Matthew 21:42, 43
156. Psa. 118:26a The Blessed One presented to Israel Matthew 21:9
157. Psa. 118:26b To come while Temple standing Matthew 21:12-15
158. Psa. 132:11 The Seed of David (the fruit of His Body) Luke 1:32, Act 2:30
159. Psa. 129:3 He was scourged Matthew 27:26
160. Psa. 138:1-6 The supremacy of David's Seed amazes kings Matthew 2:2-6
161. Psa. 147:3, 6 The earthly ministry of Christ described Luke 4:18
162. Prov. 1:23 He will send the Spirit of God John 16:7
163. Prov. 8:23 Foreordained from everlasting Rev. 13:8, 1Peter 1:19-20
164. Song. 5:16 The altogether lovely One John 1:17
165. Isa. 2:3 He shall teach all nations John 4:25
166. Isa. 2:4 He shall judge among the nations John 5:22
167. Isa. 6:1 When Isaiah saw His glory John 12:40-41
168. Isa. 6:8 The One Sent by God John 12:38-45
169. Isa. 6:9-10 Parables fall on deaf ears Matthew 13:13-15
170. Isa. 6:9-12 Blinded to Christ and deaf to His words Acts 28:23-29
171. Isa. 7:14 To be born of a virgin Luke 1:35
172. Isa. 7:14 To be Emmanuel-God with us Matthew 1:18-23, 1Tim. 3:16
173. Isa. 8:8 Called Emmanuel Matthew 28:20
174. Isa. 8:14 A stone of stumbling, a Rock of offense 1Peter 2:8
175. Isa. 9:1, 2 His ministry to begin in Galilee Matthew 4:12-17
176. Isa. 9:6 A child born-Humanity Luke 1:31
177. Isa. 9:6 A Son given-Deity Luke 1:32, John 1:14, 1Tim. 3:16
178. Isa. 9:6 Declared to be the Son of God with power Romans 1:3, 4
179. Isa. 9:6 The Wonderful One, Peleh Luke 4:22
180. Isa. 9:6 The Counsellor, Yaatz Matthew 13:54
181. Isa. 9:6 The Mighty God, El Gibor 1Cor. 1:24, Titus 2:3
182. Isa. 9:6 The Everlasting Father, Avi Adth John 8:58, 10:30
183. Isa. 9:6 The Prince of Peace, Sar Shalom John 16:33
184. Isa. 9:7 To establish an everlasting kingdom Luke 1:32-33
185. Isa. 9:7 His Character-Just John 5:30
186. Isa. 9:7 No end to his Government, Throne, and Peace Luke 1:32-33
187. Isa. 11:1 Called a Nazarene-the Branch, Netzer Matthew 2:23
188. Isa. 11:1 A rod out of Jesse-Son of Jesse Luke 3:23, 32
189. Isa. 11:2 Anointed One by the Spirit Matthew 3:16, 17, Acts 10:38
190. Isa. 11:2 His Character-Wisdom, Knowledge, et al Colossians 2:3
191. Isa. 11:3 He would know their thoughts Luke 6:8, John 2:25
192. Isa. 11:4 Judge in righteousness Acts 17:31
193. Isa. 11:4 Judges with the sword of His mouth Rev. 2:16, 19:11, 15
194. Isa. 11:5 Character: Righteous & Faithful Rev. 19:11
195. Isa. 11:10 The Gentiles seek Him John 12:18-21
196. Isa. 12:2 Called Jesus-Yeshua Matthew 1:21
197. Isa. 22:22 The One given all authority to govern Revelation 3:7
198. Isa. 25:8 The Resurrection predicted 1Corinthians 15:54
199. Isa. 26:19 His power of Resurrection predicted Matthew 27:50-54
200. Isa. 28:16 The Messiah is the precious corner stone Acts 4:11, 12
201. Isa. 28:16 The Sure Foundation 1Corinthians 3:11, Mt. 16:18
202. Isa. 29:13 He indicated hypocritical obedience to His Word Matthew 15:7-9
203. Isa. 29:14 The wise are confounded by the Word 1Corinthians 1:18-31
204. Isa. 32:2 A Refuge-A man shall be a hiding place Matthew 23:37
205. Isa. 35:4 He will come and save you Matthew 1:21
206. Isa. 35:5-6 To have a ministry of miracles Matthew 11:2-6
207. Isa. 40:3, 4 Preceded by forerunner John 1:23
208. Isa. 40:9 "Behold your God." John 1:36; 19:14
209. Isa. 40:10. He will come to reward Revelation 22:12
210. Isa. 40:11 A shepherd-compassionate life-giver John 10:10-18
2101. Isa. 42:1-4 The Servant-as a faithful, patient redeemer Matthew 12:18-21
212. Isa. 42:2 Meek and lowly Matthew 11:28-30
213. Isa. 42:3 He brings hope for the hopeless John 4
214. Isa. 42:4 The nations shall wait on His teachings John 12:20-26
215. Isa. 42:6 The Light (salvation) of the Gentiles Luke 2:32
216. Isa. 42:1, 6 His is a worldwide compassion Matthew 28:19, 20
217. Isa. 42:7 Blind eyes opened. John 9:25-38
218. Isa. 43:11 He is the only Saviour. Acts 4:12
219. Isa. 44:3 He will send the Spirit of God John 16:7, 13
220. Isa. 45:21-25 He is Lord and Saviour Philippians 3:20, Titus 2:13
221. Isa. 45:23 He will be the Judge John 5:22; Romans 14:11
222. Isa. 46:9, 10 Declares things not yet done John 13:19
223. Isa. 48:12 The First and the Last John 1:30, Revelation 1:8, 17
224. Isa. 48:16, 17 He came as a Teacher John 3:2
225. Isa. 49:1 Called from the womb-His humanity Matthew 1:18
226. Isa. 49:5 A Servant from the womb. Luke 1:31, Philippians 2:7
227. Isa. 49:6 He will restore Israel Acts 3:19-21, 15:16-17
228. Isa. 49:6 He is Salvation for Israel Luke 2:29-32
229. Isa. 49:6 He is the Light of the Gentiles John 8:12, Acts 13:47
230. Isa. 49:6 He is Salvation unto the ends of the earth Acts 15:7-18
231. Isa. 49:7 He is despised of the Nation John 1:11, 8:48-49, 19:14-15
232. Isa. 50:3 Heaven is clothed in black at His humiliation Luke 23:44, 45
233. Isa. 50:4 He is a learned counselor for the weary Matthew 7:29, 11:28, 29
234. Isa. 50:5 The Servant bound willingly to obedience Matthew 26:39
235. Isa. 50:6a "I gave my back to the smiters." Matthew 27:26
236. Isa. 50:6b He was smitten on the cheeks Matthew 26:67
237. Isa. 50:6c He was spat upon Matthew 27:30
238. Isa. 52:7 Published good tidings upon mountains Matthew 5:12,15:29,28:16
239. Isa. 52:13 The Servant exalted Acts 1:8-11; Eph. 1:19-22, Php. 2:5-9
240. Isa. 52:14 The Servant shockingly abused Luke 18:31-34; Mt. 26:67, 68
241. Isa. 52:15 Nations startled by message of the Servant Luke 18:31-34; Mt. 26:67, 68
242. Isa. 52:15 His blood shed sprinkles nations Hebrews 9:13-14, Rev. 1:5
243. Isa. 53:1 His people would not believe Him John 12:37-38
244. Isa. 53:2 Appearance of an ordinary man Philippians 2:6-8
245. Isa. 53:3a Despised Luke 4:28-29
246. Isa. 53:3b Rejected Matthew 27:21-23
247. Isa. 53:3c Great sorrow and grief Matthew 26:37-38, Luke 19:41, Heb. 4:15
248. Isa. 53:3d Men hide from being associated with Him Mark 14:50-52
249. Isa. 53:4a He would have a healing ministry Matthew 8:16-17
250. Isa. 53:4b Thought to be cursed by God Matthew 26:66, 27:41-43
251. Isa. 53:5a Bears penalty for mankind's iniquities 2Cor. 5:21, Heb. 2:9
252. Isa. 53:5b His sacrifice provides peace between man and God Colossians 1:20
253. Isa. 53:5c His sacrifice would heal man of sin 1Peter 2:24
254. Isa. 53:6a He would be the sin-bearer for all mankind 1John 2:2, 4:10
255. Isa. 53:6b God's will that He bear sin for all mankind Galatians 1:4
256. Isa. 53:7a Oppressed and afflicted Matthew 27:27-31
257. Isa. 53:7b Silent before his accusers Matthew 27:12-14
258. Isa. 53:7c Sacrificial lamb John 1:29, 1Peter 1:18-19
259. Isa. 53:8a Confined and persecuted Matthew 26:47-27:31
260. Isa. 53:8b He would be judged John 18:13-22
261. Isa. 53:8c Killed Matthew 27:35
262. Isa. 53:8d Dies for the sins of the world 1John 2:2
263. Isa. 53:9a Buried in a rich man's grave Matthew 27:57
264. Isa. 53:9b Innocent and had done no violence Luke 23:41, John 18:38
265. Isa. 53:9c No deceit in his mouth 1Peter 2:22
266. Isa. 53:10a God's will that He die for mankind John 18:11
267. Isa. 53:10b An offering for sin Matthew 20:28, Galatians 3:13
268. Isa. 53:10c Resurrected and live forever Romans 6:9
269. Isa. 53:10d He would prosper John 17:1-5
270. Isa. 53:11a God fully satisfied with His suffering John 12:27
271. Isa. 53:11b God's servant would justify man Romans 5:8-9, 18-19
272. Isa. 53:11c The sin-bearer for all mankind Hebrews 9:28
273. Isa. 53:12a Exalted by God because of his sacrifice Matthew 28:18
274. Isa. 53:12b He would give up his life to save mankind Luke 23:46
275. Isa. 53:12c Numbered with the transgressors Mark 15:27-28
276. Isa. 53:12d Sin-bearer for all mankind 1Peter 2:24
277. Isa. 53:12e Intercede to God in behalf of mankind Luke 23:34, Rom. 8:34
278. Isa. 55:3 Resurrected by God Acts 13:34
279. Isa. 55:4a A witness John 18:37
280. Isa. 55:4b He is a leader and commander Hebrews 2:10
281. Isa. 55:5 God would glorify Him Acts 3:13
282. Isa. 59:16a Intercessor between man and God Matthew 10:32
283. Isa. 59:16b He would come to provide salvation John 6:40
284. Isa. 59:20 He would come to Zion as their Redeemer Luke 2:38
285. Isa. 60:1-3 He would shew light to the Gentiles Acts 26:23
286. Isa. 61:1a The Spirit of God upon him Matthew 3:16-17
287. Isa. 61:1b The Messiah would preach the good news Luke 4:16-21
288. Isa. 61:1c Provide freedom from the bondage of sin John 8:31-36
289. Isa. 61:1-2a Proclaim a period of grace Galatians 4:4-5
290. Jer. 23:5-6 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31
291. Jer. 23:5-6 The Messiah would be both God and Man John 13:13, 1Ti 3:16
292. Jer. 31:22 Born of a virgin Matthew 1:18-20
293. Jer. 31:31 The Messiah would be the new covenant Matthew 26:28
294. Jer. 33:14-15 Descendant of David Luke 3:23-31
295. Eze.34:23-24 Descendant of David Matthew 1:1
296. Eze.37:24-25 Descendant of David Luke 1:31-33
297. Dan. 2:44-45 The Stone that shall break the kingdoms Matthew 21:44
298. Dan. 7:13-14a He would ascend into heaven Acts 1:9-11
299. Dan. 7:13-14b Highly exalted Ephesians 1:20-22
300. Dan. 7:13-14c His dominion would be everlasting Luke 1:31-33
301. Dan. 9:24a To make an end to sins Galatians 1:3-5
302. Dan. 9:24a To make reconciliation for iniquity Romans 5:10, 2Cor. 5:18-21
303. Dan. 9:24b He would be holy Luke 1:35
304. Dan. 9:25 His announcement John 12:12-13
305. Dan. 9:26a Cut off Matthew 16:21, 21:38-39
306. Dan. 9:26b Die for the sins of the world Hebrews 2:9
307. Dan. 9:26c Killed before the destruction of the temple Matthew 27:50-51
308. Dan. 10:5-6 Messiah in a glorified state Revelation 1:13-16
309. Hos. 11:1 He would be called out of Egypt Matthew 2:15
310. Hos. 13:14 He would defeat death 1Corinthians 15:55-57
311. Joel 2:32 Offer salvation to all mankind Romans 10:9-13
312. Jonah 1:17 Death and resurrection of Christ Matthew 12:40, 16:4
313. Mic. 5:2a Born in Bethlehem Matthew 2:1-6
314. Mic. 5:2b Ruler in Israel Luke 1:33
315. Mic. 5:2c From everlasting John 8:58
316. Hag. 2:6-9 He would visit the second Temple Luke 2:27-32
317. Hag. 2:23 Descendant of Zerubbabel Luke 2:27-32
318. Zech. 3:8 God's servant John 17:4
319. Zech. 6:12-13 Priest and King Hebrews 8:1
320. Zech. 9:9a Greeted with rejoicing in Jerusalem Matthew 21:8-10
321. Zech. 9:9b Beheld as King John 12:12-13
322. Zech. 9:9c The Messiah would be just John 5:30
323. Zech. 9:9d The Messiah would bring salvation Luke 19:10
324. Zech. 9:9e The Messiah would be humble Matthew 11:29
325. Zech. 9:9f Presented to Jerusalem riding on a donkey Matthew 21:6-9
326. Zech. 10:4 The cornerstone Ephesians 2:20
327. Zech. 11:4-6a At His coming, Israel to have unfit leaders Matthew 23:1-4
328. Zech. 11:4-6b Rejection causes God to remove His protection Luke 19:41-44
329. Zech. 11:4-6c Rejected in favor of another king John 19:13-15
330. Zech. 11:7 Ministry to "poor," the believing remnant Matthew 9:35-36
331. Zech. 11:8a Unbelief forces Messiah to reject them Matthew 23:33
332. Zech. 11:8b Despised Matthew 27:20
333. Zech. 11:9 Stops ministering to those who rejected Him Matthew 13:10-11
334. Zech. 11:10-11a Rejection causes God to remove protection Luke 19:41-44
335. Zech. 11:10-11b The Messiah would be God John 14:7
336. Zech. 11:12-13a Betrayed for thirty pieces of silver Matthew 26:14-15
337. Zech. 11:12-13b Rejected Matthew 26:14-15
338. Zech. 11:12-13c Thirty pieces of silver cast in the house of the Lord Matthew 27:3-5
339. Zech. 11:12-13d The Messiah would be God John 12:45
340. Zech. 12:10a The Messiah's body would be pierced John 19:34-37
341. Zech. 12:10b The Messiah would be both God and man John 10:30
342. Zech. 12:10c The Messiah would be rejected John 1:11
343. Zech. 13:7a God's will He die for mankind John 18:11
344. Zech. 13:7b A violent death Mark 14:27
345. Zech. 13:7c Both God and man John 14:9
346. Zech. 13:7d Israel scattered as a result of rejecting Him Matthew 26:31-56
347. Zech. 14:4 He would return to the Mt. of Olives Acts 1:11-12
348. Mal. 3:1a Messenger to prepare the way for Messiah Mark 1:1-8
349. Mal. 3:1b Sudden appearance at the temple Mark 11:15-16
350. Mal. 3:1c Messenger of the new covenant Luke 4:43
351. Mal. 3:6 The God who changes not Hebrews 13:8
352. Mal. 4:5 Forerunner in spirit of Elijah Mt. 3:1-3, 11:10-14, 17:11-13
353. Mal. 4:6 Forerunner would turn many to righteousness Luke 1:16-17